‘PP Process’ is responsible for 90% of Sun’s Energy

Scientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst on Wednesday revealed that they have discovered some particles from the Sun that can prove help to find out the sources of Sun's energy.   A team of researchers in Italy's Apennine Mountains, with the help of the Borexino instrument, detected electron-flavor neutrinos that are released by proton-proton (pp) fusion reaction in the Sun.   Researchers said, 'pp' process is the very beginning stage in a reaction sequence that is responsible for 99% of the Su

Scientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst on Wednesday revealed that they have discovered some particles from the Sun that can prove help to find out the sources of Sun's energy.

A team of researchers in Italy's Apennine Mountains, with the help of the Borexino instrument, detected electron-flavor neutrinos that are released by proton-proton (pp) fusion reaction in the Sun.

Researchers said, 'pp' process is the very beginning stage in a reaction sequence that is responsible for 99% of the Sun's energy.

Andrea Pocar, Umass Amherst physicist and part of the team of 100 scientists involved in the work, said, "PP neutrinos are emitted when two protons combine together to form a deuteron." Andrea said it is very difficult to study these pp neutrinos.

According to researchers, light emitted at the time of reactions at the heart of the Sun takes almost thousands of years to reach at the surface which later takes eight minutes to reach the Earth. They said, neutrinos are emitted out from the Sun at nearly the speed of light, and 65 billion of neutrinos hit earth's surface on every square centimeter in a second.

Pocar said, on their eight-minutes of journey to earth, these electrons neutrinos fluctuate between the other two flavors known as muon and tau neutrinos.

According to scientists, when these neutrinos arrive at the Borexino instrument they rarely interact with scintillators that are filled with a benzene-like liquid which is amongst one of the oldest petroleum that exists. They need this because they want all the Carbon-14 to have decayed as decay of carbon-14 cover the neutrino signals that they actually wanted to detect.

Scientists say, on a rare occasion when the two Carbon-14 atoms decay at the same time, it produces a signature which is similar to a pp nuclear reaction that happens in the Sun.